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Medieval and Early Modern Schools


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Bukka Shintō

A general term referring to the various forms of Shintō developed by Buddhist thinkers. Also known as Bukke Shintō, the term refers generally to Shintō doctrines combining Buddhist and Shintō elements (known as Shinbutsu shūgō) that saw maximum diffusion during the med...

Fukko Shintō

"Restoration Shinto," also known as "Pure Shinto" (Jun Shintō), "Ancient-Way Shinto" (Kodō Shintō), "Nativist Shintō" (Kokugaku Shintō), and "Shintō Fukkoha" (the Shintō Restoration Faction). This term is usually employed to refer generally to early modern nativi...

Goryū Shintō

A Shinto teaching belonging to the broader tradition of Ryōbu Shintō. "Goryū" originally referred to the Buddhist Dharma lineage of retired sovereigns and other retired members of the imperial house. The six basic lineages in the Kōtaku branch of Shingon esotericism include one ...

Hakke Shintō

The Shintō tradition transmitted by the Shirakawa Hakuō House, traditionally in charge of the post of superintendent (haku or kami) of the Ministry of Deities (Jingikan). Also called Shirakawa Shintō. Originally, the post of superintendent of the Jingikan was often held by the Nakato...

Hokke Shintō

Shinto doctrines promoted by the Nichiren sect of Buddhism. From the time of its founder, the Nichiren sect has been very active in incorporating kami cults within its own system. Its Shinto doctrines as they are known today, however, were systematized between the late Muromachi and the early Edo p...

Inbe Shintō

One lineage of Shinto. Transmitted by the Inbe clan and commonly held to have been advocated by Inbe Masamichi (n.d.). Claiming Futodama as its ancestral patriarch, the ancient Inbe clan is said to have been in charge of court rituals together with the Nakatomi clan. However, it is believed that in...

Ise Shintō

A branch or school of Shinto teachings transmitted by priests of the Watarai clan at the Outer Shrine (Gekū) of the Grand Shrines of Ise (Ise Jingū). Since most of the promoters were clan members (uchibito) of the Watarai clan, it is also called Watarai Shintō or, since the view of t...

Jingidōke

A collective term for lineages engaging in Shinto as their traditional house occupation. In the early period, these included the jingi clans (jingi shizoku), namely, clans connected to the Jingikan such as the Nakatomi and Inbe. In the early ninth century, postitions at the Jingikan became heredita...

Jūhachi Shintō

The principles of Yoshida Shintō expounded by Yoshida Kanetomo, as found in his principal work Essentials of Prime Shinto (Yuiitsu Shintō myōbō yōshū). Kanetomo divided Shinto into the categories of substance (tai, the three foundations); function (yō, the three s...

Juka Shintō

Teachings on Shinto as expounded by Japanese Confucianists. These teachings claim the unity of Shinto and Confucianism, or represent amalgamations of the two. With the rise to prominence of Confucianism at the beginning of the early modern period and the simultaneous stagnation of the previous theo...

Kaden Shintō

The Shinto transmitted by a particular house or lineage. As this is mainly to be seen in the houses of hereditary Shinto priests, known as shinshokuke or shake, it is also called shake Shintō (or shaden Shintō, or densha Shintō). The term kaden (lit., "lineage-transmission") is inter...

Kikke Shintō

The Shinto teachings transmitted by the Tachibana clan, said to have originated with Tachibana Moroe (684-787), but in fact likely organized only after the beginning of the Edo period. Kikke Shinto became widely known during the mid-Edo Hōei era (1704-1710), when Tamaki Masahide, a follower of...

Miwa-ryū Shintō

A form of Shinto belonging to the tradition of Ryōbu Shintō that developed primarily at Byōdōji and Ōgorinji (Ōmiwadera), temples serving as the "parish temples" (jingūji) of Ōmiwa Shrine in Nara Prefecture. The founder of Byōdōji, Kyōen (also ...

Mononobe Shintō

A form of Shinto based on the text Sendai kuji hongi taiseikyō. This text exists in two versions, composed of thirty-one and seventy-two fascicles, respectively, although the date and purpose of its composition are not clear, and are the subject of debate. Most scholars, however, agree that bo...

Ōgimachi Shintō

A lineage of Shinto originating in the transmission of Suika Shinto by Ōgimachi Kinmichi (1653-1733) to the sovereign and court retainers. In 1680, Kinmichi presented a Shinto oath to Yamazaki Ansai, taking up a full-scale study of Suika Shinto, while also engaging in the practice of Song Neo-...

Reisō Shintō

A form of Buddhist Shintō (Bukka Shintō). This doctrine was created in the Edo period by Chōon Dō kai (1628-1695) and further developed by Jōin (1683-1739). The origin of the term reisō ("spiritual source") can be traced to a passage from the Sendai kuji hongi taiseiky...

Ritō Shinchi Shintō

Shintō doctrine established by the early Edo period Confucian scholar Hayashi Razan (1583-1657). Razan was the only Confucian scholar officially employed by the Tokugawa government. Later in his life he wrote several books on Shintō matters; in all of them he briefly deals with what he ca...

Ryōbu Shintō

A general term referring to Shintō doctrines derived from Shingon esoteric Buddhism. These doctrines associate the Inner Shrine of Ise with Dainichi of the Womb Realm (taizōkai) and the Outer Shrine with Dainichi of the Vajra realm (kongōkai); in addition, these doctrines propose exp...

Sannō Shintō

A branch of Shinto that took shape in the Tendai sect, based on the cult of the Mountain King (Sannō) at the Hiyoshi Taisha (alt., Hie Taisha), tutelary shrine (chinjusha) for the temple Enryakuji. Its early modern doctrines that concern the shrine Tōshōgū are specially distingu...

Shugendō

Shugendō is a religion that espouses a variety of salvific activities based on the attainment by its practitioners, called shugen, of supranormal, magico-religious power through ascetic training in the mountains. It gradually took form between the twelfth and fourteenth centuries, but was even...



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