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Ancient


§ Policies and Institutions of the Classical Period

The policies and institutions of Shintō were first established during the formation of the ritsuryō polity (a system of punitive and administrative legal codes based on the Tang Chinese model) in the latter half of the seventh century. The existence of Shintō systems and organization...

Engishiki

The Engishiki is a compendium of rules and procedures for implementing ritsu (penal codes), ryō (administrative codes), and kyaku (supplementary laws). It comprised fifty scrolls, and approximately three thousand and some hundreds of articles. The Engishiki, the simultaneously compiled Engikya...

Jingi shizoku

Hereditary priestly clans such as the Nakatomi, the Inbe, the Urabe and the Sarume who served the royal court from ancient times. Except for the Urabe, the members of these clans were all said to be descendants of deities who joined in assuaging Amaterasu when she hid herself in the heavenly rock c...

Jingiryō

The Laws on Deities of the Taihō and Yōrō codes. No copy of the Taihō Code of 702 has survived, but in the reconstructed Yōrō Code (promulgated in 757), the twenty-article Jingiryō comprises Chapter Six. The Jingiryō established the basis of official ritual l...

Jingūji

Jingūji (shrine temples), also called jinganji or jingoji, were Buddhist temples associated with Shinto shrines. Jingūji were built according to the notion of the "amalgamation of Shintō and Buddhism" (shinbutsu shūgō). The first recorded instance of a jingūji is found...

Kansha

Official shrines acknowledged by the government in the classical period. The word kansha usually refers to the shrines that received offerings at the annual spring kinensai, which was coordinated by the Jingikan (Council of Kami Affairs). These were part of the official shrine system that emerged d...

Kokushi genzaisha

The shrines whose names appear in the Six Official Histories (ritsukokushi), namely the Nihon shoki, Shoku nihongi, Nihon kōki, Shoku nihon kōki, Montoku jitsuroku, and Sandai jitsuroku, are the kokushi genzaisha. Such shrines are also called kokushi shozaisha, "shrines that appear in the...

Nonomiya

Literally, the "Palace in the Fields," the Nonomiya was where the saiō, the abstinent princess, stayed for one year before she went to serve the Deity of Ise as the saigū. After the accession (sokui) of a tennō, the newly selected princess (either the daughter, sister, or granddaught...

Ritsuryō Jingikan

The Jingikan was the ritsuryō office in charge of the administration of kami worship. It was one of the ritsuryō government's two councils and eight ministries. The general responsibilities of the Jingikan included the performance of rites for the tenjin chigi ("celestial and terrestrial ...

Saigū

The saigū was an unmarried royal princess who served at the Grand Shrines of Ise (Ise Jingū). She was also called the Ise no saiō, sainaishinnō, and itsuki no miya, terms that denote an abstinent or consecrated princess. The term saigū originally referred to the Saiōg&...

Saiin

The saiin was an unmarried royal princess who served at the Kamo Shrines in Kyoto. She was also called Kamo no saiō and itsuki no miya, both which denote a consecrated princess of Kamo. The term saiin originally referred to the residence of a Kamo princess, but it also came to mean the princes...

Shikinaisha

Shrines listed in the Register of Deities (Jinmyōchō) of the Engishiki (Procedures of the Engi Era), which was promulgated in 967. In the ancient period, the Jingikan (Council of State) compiled a list of official shrines. This list is commonly called the Kanshachō(Register of Offi...

Shin'i, Shinkai

Although the terms differ, both words denote ranks granted to deities by the royal court. Such ranks were given to individual deities rather than to shrines. There were three basic ranking systems: civil ranks (ikai), military merit ranks (kun'i), and princely ranks (hon'i). There were also special...





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