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Modern and Contemporary


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§Modern and Contemporary Systems and Institutions: An Overview

The Restoration government used the so-called Shinbutsu hanzen rei of 1868 to articulate its policy of separating Buddhism and Shintō, and thus end the practise of Shintō and Buddhist amalgamation (shinbutsu shūgō). In 1871, the government then issued legislation defining shrine...

Atsuta Shrine College

A training college for Shintō priests run by Atsuta Shrine (Atsuta Jingū), under authorization from the Association of Shintō Shrines (Jinja honchō). The college, when founded in 1950, was originally known as Atsuta jingū futsū shinshoku yōsei sho (Atsuta shrine n...

Dewa Sanzan Priest Training Institute

  A Jinja Honchō-approved training institute for shrine priests managed by Dewa Sanzan Jinja. It was established in 1962 as a B-rank institution offering a one-year course for trainees (gonseikai katei), but in 1980 it launched a two-year program. At present, it recruits around ten high school g...

Fukensha

A pre-war shrine rank comprised of prefectural shrines (kensha) and municipal district shrines (fusha). In the modern shrine ranking system established in 1871, shrines were divided into kansha (state shrines) and shosha (general shrines); these shrines occupied the highest rank of the latter (shos...

Gōsha

Rural District Shrines. A shrine rank instituted in the Modern shrine ranking system. The modern shrine ranking system was divided into the two general categories of kansha (state shrines) and shosha (assorted shrines). Gōsha were included in the latter category below the municipal and prefect...

Imperial Restoration

  A reference to the ideal of overthrowing the Tokugawa shogunate and installing a system of direct rule by the emperor. The inspiration for an imperial restoration and the movement toward direct imperial rule spread among activists following the signing of the trade treaties with western powers in 1...

Jingiin

The Jingiin (Institute of Divinities) was an organ for the administration of shrine affairs attached the Home Ministry; it was created according to Imperial Rescript 736 on November 9, 1940. The director of the Institute was the Home Minister, beneath whom were an assistant director and various spe...

Jingū Kenshūsho

Ise Shrines' Priest Training Institute. A priest training institute (shinshoku yōsei kikan) run by the Ise shrines and approved by the Jinja Honchō (Association of Shintō Shrines). The precursor was the Ise regular priest training course founded in 1952, known as the Ise Shinmu Jissh...

Jinja gōshi

Shrine mergers. In its broadest sense, the term refers to the process of "merging" whereby multiple shrines become one. More specifically, the term refers to the shrine merger policies carried out by central and local government between the end of the Meiji and the start of the Taisho eras. There w...

Jinja Honchō

The Association of Shintō Shrines, a group that embraces the vast majority of shrines in Japan. From the Meiji era (1868-1912), shrines were placed under the supervision of government bodies as "sites for the performance of state ritual." In 1946, however, the Institute of Divinities (Jingiin)...

Jinjakyoku

Bureau of Shrines. A bureau set up within the Home Ministry in 1900, it endured until 1940. It was created as part of the institutional reforms of April 26, 1900, when the Home ministry's Bureau for Shrines and Temples (Shajikyoku) fragmented into a Bureau of Shrines (Jinja Kyoku) and a Bureau of R...

Kōgakkan University

A Shintō university established in response to the destruction of antiquities in the midst of the civilisation and enlightenment movement of Meiji. Its founding principle was the exposition of an ethics and a learning rooted in Japanese history, the promotion of a healthy, ethical life and dev...

Kokugakuin University

A Shintō university established as part of the Meiji trend that bewailed the sudden inclination toward, and uncritical veneration of Western culture and sought to reaffirm Japan's traditional culture. Its founding principle was "Establishing the origin." It traces its origins to the Center for...

Kyoto Kokugakuin

A normal training institute for Shintō priests (see also Training Facilities for Shintō Priests) authorised by the Jinja honchō (Association of Shintō Shrines) and operated by the Kyōto koten kōkyūsho Kyōto Kokugakuin, a registered educational charity. This i...

Modern shrine ranking system

A system introduced by the Meiji government to rank shrines. The Restoration government, even as it came into being, sought to gain control of all shrines in the land and to that end quickly instituted a shrine survey. On the fourteenth day of the fifth month in 1871 the Dajōkan (Council of St...

Mukakusha

Unranked shrines. This is a category of shrine in the Meiji shrine ranking system entirely without rank, not even that of sonsha (village shrines). Among all shrines, these had the absolute lowest status. Shrines of this sort were also referred to as zassha, or "assorted shrines." To such shrines, ...

Problems of religion and government

In Article Twenty-eight of the Meiji Constitution, religious freedom was recognized after a fashion, but the argument was that shrines were not religious institutions and so in fact shrines held a special position. Thus it was that GHQ issued the Shintō Directive (Shintō shirei) immediate...

Religious Corporations Law

  The Religious Corporations Law was enacted on April 3 1951; it followed the Religious Organizations Law (Shūkyō Dantaihō) of 1939 and the Religious Corporations Ordinance (Shūkyō Hōjinrei) of 1945. The law was enacted with the purpose of giving corporate status to reli...

Religious Corporations Ordinance

  An ordinance issued and implemented on December 28 1945 by means of Imperial Rescript 719; it set out rules relating to the creation and registration of religious corporations. It comprised eighteen articles and an appendix and was more simplified in content than the earlier Religious Organizations...

Religious Organizations Law

  The first systematized set of laws pertaining to religious groups. Promulgated on April 8 1939 as Law no.77, it was enacted on April 1 of the following year. The law comprised thirty seven articles, and together they spelt the end of state supervision and state control over religious administration...



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