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Home » 7. Concepts and Doctrines » Basic Terms
Sonnō is reverence for the imperial house, while the Japanese kinnō adds a strong practical element to a sense of loyalty to the emperor. This type of imperial loyalty was advocated during the Edo period by the followers of Yamazaki Ansai, based on the Zhu Xi Neo-Confucian idea of obligations or duty according to one's status (Ch. mingfen ; Jp. meibun). It was further broadened and deepened along restoration lines by National Learning (kokugaku) scholars such as Motoori Norinaga and Hirata Atsutane. The idea was suppressed by the shogunate (bakufu) following the Hōreki Incident of 1758, when the Shintō scholar Takenouchi Shikibu was banished from Kyoto. It was further suppressed when he was executed along with the scholars Yamagata Daini and Fujii Umon in the Meiwa Incident of 1767. From around the middle of the nineteenth century the concept was linked to the concept of expelling foreigners (jōi) and became the theoretical base for anti-shogunate criticism (tōbaku).

—Fukui Yoshihiko
"Establishment of a National Learning Institute for the Dissemination of Research on Shinto and Japanese Culture"
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