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Home » 7. Concepts and Doctrines » Basic Terms
Toga
An error. A synonym of tsumi. Toga may be written in Chinese characters as 롢ʡ and so on. The term appears in the liturgical address (norito) for Ōtonohogai (Palace Safety Liturgy) in the Engishiki: "If there are errors and offences (toga ayamachi), let us correct them." Nihon kokugo daijiten explains the etymology of toga as follows: "to" is a transformation of the stem "tsu," as in tsumi; while "ga" (as in saga [defect], maga [distortion], and kega [pollution]) is a suffix meaning "manifestation." Some scholars think that toga is an antonym of imi, meaning avoidance or abstinence.

— Nishioka Kazuhiko
"Establishment of a National Learning Institute for the Dissemination of Research on Shinto and Japanese Culture"
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