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Home » Chapter Introductions(ܧڧ) » ܧڧ
ѧ 5 : ڧѧݧ ѧ٧էߧڧܧ
ѧ٧է֧ݧ ѧާѧڧӧѧ ֧ާڧߧ, ߧڧ֧ ڧߧڧܧڧ ѧ٧էߧӧѧߧڧ, ާѧ פ. էߧ ڧ ӧ֧ڧ, ڧާݧԧڧ ԧ ݧӧ ߧڧ ԧݧѧԧݧާѧѧ ޤĤ, ֧ «֧ӧ٧ߧڧ», «ܧݧߧ ҧا֧ӧ», «ݧ֧էӧѧ ӧݧ ҧا֧ӧ». ѧܧڧ ҧѧ٧, ֧ ѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ӧڧէڧާ ڧѧݧ ܧݧߧ֧ߧڧ, ڧߧڧܧ ҧا֧ӧ ӧ֧ݧڧڧӧѧ֧ ӧ ѧܧѧݧߧ ڧݧ, ֧ݧӧ֧ ݧѧ֧ ֧. էڧ ڧ ߧѧڧӧѧاߧ֧ۧڧ ܧߧ ݧ֧ާ֧ߧ ڧѧݧѧ ֧ݧڧԧڧ٧ߧԧ ܧݧߧ֧ߧڧ, ӧݧ֧ էߧ֧ߧڧ ҧا֧ӧ ڧѧݧߧ ֧էڧߧ֧ . ڧѧݧѧ ڧާ֧ѧܧ ֧ާ ֧ߧѧݧߧ ާ֧ ٧ѧߧڧާѧ֧ ڧѧ ڧߧ֧ߧڧ ڧާ֧ѧ ڧѧݧߧ ֧է ڧߧڧܧڧ ҧا֧ӧѧ, ڧ٧ӧ֧ߧ ߧѧ٧ӧѧߧڧ֧ѧۧէ٧֧ѧ 羨, ڧѧݧߧ ܧѧݧ֧ߧէѧ ѧާ ֧ ѧܧا اڧ ڧѧާڧܧ . ֧է ڧߧڧܧڧ ڧѧݧ ҧ ٧ߧѧ֧ߧڧ ڧާ֧ ڧѧݧ էߧ֧ߧڧ ӧ֧ߧߧ ֧է ҧا֧ӧѧ ݧէ, ѧܧا ҧߧѧѧ ľ. ڧݧݧڧ ѧ٧ߧ ڧާ֧ ڧѧݧ ѧ٧էߧڧܧ, ܧ ا֧ӧ֧ߧߧ ѧӧݧݧڧ ڧާ֧ѧܧ ֧ާ֧ ѧާѧާ ֧ۧѧ.
       ҧӧ ߧ֧ ѧէڧڧߧߧ ѧ٧էߧ֧ӧѧ, ާѧ, ڧܧ ڧ٧ӧ֧ߧ. ާ֧ߧ ӧ֧ާ֧ ԧէ ӧاէѧ֧ ѧ٧ݧڧߧާ ҧէѧާ ԧݧѧߧ ڧѧݧߧާ ܧѧݧ֧ߧէѧ. ѧڧާ֧, ԧ ߧѧڧߧѧ֧ ѧ٧էߧӧѧߧڧ ֧ӧԧ էߧ ӧԧ ԧէ ٧ѧܧѧߧڧӧѧ֧ ڧѧݧѧާ ֧֧է ѧԧ ԧէ ߧӧާ. ֧֧ߧڧ ӧ֧ԧ ܧѧݧ֧ߧէѧߧԧ ֧ڧէ ѧܧا ѧӧݧ֧ ҧݧ ܧݧڧ֧ӧ ҧߧ ڧѧݧ ѧ٧էߧ֧. ѧڧߧѧ է֧ӧߧ֧ԧ ֧ڧէ, ߧ ѧӧ ѧ٧ݧڧߧ ѧ٧էߧ֧ӧѧ, ѧէڧڧߧߧ ֧֧էѧӧѧ֧ާ ԧէѧ է֧֧ӧߧ ӧѧاѧڧ ҧݧѧԧէѧߧ ڧߧڧܧڧ ҧا֧ӧѧ ٧ ڧߧ֧֧ߧߧ էѧ ڧݧ ٧ ҧԧѧ اѧ. ѧܧڧ ҧѧ٧, ߧ ڧߧڧާѧ ݧ٧ ҧا֧ӧ֧ߧߧ ڧݧ ܧѧާ, էӧ֧ ڧ ӧ٧ѧڧާߧ էէ֧اܧ. ާ ا, ާѧ ѧݧ ߧܧڧߧڧӧѧ ܧѧ ѧߧէѧߧѧ ާ ӧݧ֧ߧڧ ڧѧݧߧ اڧ٧ߧ ҧ֧ӧ. اߧ ܧѧ٧ѧ, ާѧ ӧݧ֧ ӧѧاߧ ڧѧݧ, ٧ߧѧߧڧ ܧԧ ߧ֧ҧէڧާ էݧ ԧ, ҧ ߧ ާ ڧߧڧܧڧ ӧ֧ӧѧߧڧ ܧݧߧ֧ߧڧ ѧ٧ߧ ڧߧڧܧڧ ѧާѧ.
        ѧ٧է֧ ܧѧѧ֧ ڧѧݧ ֧ڧӧѧݧ֧, ӧէڧާ ߧ ԧէѧӧ֧ߧߧ ӧߧ, ѧާѧ , ާ֧ߧ ֧ԧڧߧѧݧߧ ڧߧڧܧڧ ѧާѧ, ѧܧا ڧѧݧ, ӧ֧ߧߧ է֧ݧߧ ڧߧڧܧڧ ҧا֧ӧѧ, ڧѧݧ, ӧ٧ѧߧߧ ڧܧӧ, ڧѧݧ, ѧӧݧ֧ާ ӧ֧էߧ֧ӧߧ اڧ٧ߧ, ڧѧݧ, ѧѧߧ֧ߧߧ ߧ ӧѧ ܧ.
       ڧѧݧ ѧ٧էߧ֧ӧ է֧ӧߧ֧ԧ ֧ڧէ ߧӧߧ ߧ ҧݧѧԧէѧ ѧ֧ݧԧڧ֧ܧڧ ѧܧܧѧ. էߧڧ ڧ ߧѧڧӧѧاߧ֧ۧڧ ֧٧ݧѧ ѧܧڧ ѧܧ ѧݧ ҧߧѧا֧ߧڧ ѧ֧ѧܧ ڧߧڧܧ ѧާ ѧۧߧ ٧ѧݧڧӧ ߧѧܧѧ , ܧ էѧڧ ֧ڧէ 5ԧ է 9ԧ ӧ֧ܧ ߧѧ֧ , ܧѧ ݧ֧էӧڧ, ڧ٧֧ߧڧ ֧ ڧ٧ާ֧ߧ֧ߧڧ ѧܧڧ ڧѧݧѧ. ݧ֧էߧ֧ ӧ֧ާ, ӧݧ֧էӧڧ ӧ֧ݧڧ֧ߧڧ ڧݧ ѧܧڧ ѧܧ ֧٧ݧѧ ڧ٧֧ߧڧ ߧѧէ ѧݧ ӧ٧ާاߧ ֧ܧߧڧӧѧ է֧ӧߧڧ ڧѧݧ. ݧڧ اڧէѧߧڧ ѧܧا ӧ٧ݧѧԧѧ ߧ էѧݧߧ֧ۧڧ ڧݧ֧էӧѧߧڧ. ާڧާ ԧ, ֧է֧ݧ֧ߧߧ ֧٧ݧѧ ڧߧ ڧ٧֧ߧڧ ѧѧܧ֧ է֧اѧߧڧ ڧߧڧܧڧ ҧէ ѧӧߧڧ֧ݧߧ ڧݧ֧էӧѧߧڧ ڧѧݧ ѧ٧էߧ֧, ڧ٧ӧ֧ߧ ѧէڧڧ էԧڧ ѧ.
       ڧߧڧܧڧ ڧѧݧ, ӧ٧ߧڧܧߧ ߧ ߧӧ ѧԧѧߧԧ ҧ֧ӧ, ѧ٧ӧڧӧѧݧڧ ӧާ֧ߧ ӧ٧ߧڧܧߧӧ֧ߧڧ֧ ѧ٧ӧڧڧ֧ է֧ӧߧ֧ԧ ԧէѧӧ, ڧ ܧߧѧ ڧ֧ާ ҧݧ ֧֧ߧߧ է֧ߧ. ֧ڧ ѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ڧާ֧ѧܧ էڧߧѧڧ ֧ާާ ٧ڧ ҧݧ ٧ѧӧ֧֧ߧ ާڧӧѧߧڧ ڧ֧ާ ڧѧݧߧ ҧէ ԧէѧӧ ڧ Χ. ѧ٧ߧҧѧ٧ڧ ڧߧڧܧڧ ӧ֧ӧѧߧڧ ڧѧݧ, ӧ٧ߧڧܧ֧ ߧ ߧӧ ڧѧݧߧԧ ܧݧߧ֧ߧڧ ڧߧڧܧڧ ҧا֧ӧѧ ڧ, ܧ էҧѧӧڧݧڧ ڧѧݧߧ ҧէ, ӧڧӧڧ֧ ֧ۧѧ, ѧݧ ڧէڧ ѧէ ߧ ا֧ߧڧ ֧էߧڧ ӧ֧ܧ է, էߧѧܧ, ߧ ҧݧ ӧѧߧӧݧ֧ߧ ֧֧ާڧӧѧߧ ӧ֧ާ֧ߧߧ ֧ڧ ֧ ߧѧݧ֧էӧѧߧߧ ѧէڧڧ ڧߧڧܧԧ ڧѧݧڧ٧ާ. ӧѧߧӧݧ֧ߧڧ էڧݧ ֧ ڧѧݧߧ ѧէڧڧ ڧ ֧ էҧߧ ڧѧݧߧ ٧ѧڧ֧, ѧߧڧӧڧ ֧ۧѧ. ѧܧڧ ҧѧ٧, ӧ ڧߧڧܧԧ ҧԧݧا֧ߧڧ ߧ ԧէѧӧ֧ߧߧ ӧߧ ҧاէѧ ѧ, ܧѧѧڧ ӧ֧ӧ֧ߧߧ ڧߧڧܧڧ ӧ֧ӧѧߧڧ ֧ۧѧ ֧ۧէ٧. ާ ԧ, ѧ ԧէѧӧ֧ߧߧ ڧߧ է֧ݧߧ ާڧߧѧ֧ ֧ާ ҧԧݧا֧ߧڧ, ӧ٧ ڧڧѧݧߧ ڧѧݧڧ٧ާ ڧ ڧѧݧߧ ܧݧߧ֧ߧڧ֧ ڧާ֧ѧܧ ֧ާ ֧ڧ ֧ۧէ٧. ڧߧڧܧڧ ѧէڧڧ ѧާ ѧܧا ߧ֧ѧ٧ӧߧ ӧ٧ѧߧ ڧߧڧܧڧ ܧݧ ߧܧԧ ڧާ֧ѧܧԧ էާ է֧ӧߧڧ ӧ֧ާ֧, ѧߧڧݧ ӧ ҧݧڧߧ ѧѧܧ֧. ڧߧڧܧ ҧԧݧا֧ߧڧ ѧާ ڧ٧ӧ֧ߧ ҧѧ ֧֧ߧ ԧݧѧӧߧԧ ѧާ ѧ 21 ԧ (ڧܧڧߧ֧ ֧ߧԧ ǯ), ֧ا֧ԧէߧ ֧ڧӧѧݧѧߧߧѧާ֧ѧ , ܧڧߧѧާڧѧ , ѧܧا ߧڧܧѧݧߧ էݧ ѧާ ѧ٧էߧڧڧԧ ѧѧ ާڧܧ֧ѧ īͼº.
        ѧ, ѧܧѧ٧ӧѧ֧ ڧߧڧܧڧ ҧԧݧا֧ߧڧ ѧ٧ݧڧߧ ѧާ, ڧݧ٧ ֧ӧڧ ҧ֧ڧߧ ֧ާڧߧ. ѧܧا ڧܧ ֧էѧӧݧ֧ߧ ѧ٧ݧڧߧ ѧէڧڧ ڧߧڧܧڧ ѧާ ѧ٧ߧ ֧ԧڧߧѧ ߧڧ, է֧ݧߧ ڧߧڧܧڧ ڧѧݧ, ѧѧܧ֧ߧ էݧ ڧ ѧާ. ѧܧڧ ڧѧݧ ڧާ֧ ѧѧܧ֧ߧ ҧ֧ߧߧ, ߧڧܧѧݧߧ էݧ ާ֧ߧ ڧߧڧܧڧ ѧէڧڧ, ߧ֧ܧ ݧѧ ѧܧڧ ڧѧݧ ѧاѧ ڧڧ֧ܧڧ ֧ ӧ٧ߧڧܧߧӧ֧ߧڧ ާڧӧѧߧڧ ڧߧڧܧԧ ӧ֧ӧѧߧڧ էѧߧߧ ާ֧ߧ. ާ ԧ, ѧܧѧ ѧէڧڧߧߧѧ ܧݧ ѧاѧ֧ ѧէڧڧ ڧݧߧڧ֧ݧܧڧ ڧܧ ڧ٧ԧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ڧѧݧߧ ֧է, ѧѧܧ֧ߧ էݧ ڧѧݧ էѧߧߧԧ ѧާ. ݧ֧էߧڧ ԧէ ڧߧ֧֧ ѧܧ ܧݧ էݧاѧ֧ ӧ٧ѧѧ. ߧѧڧ ާާ֧ߧ ڧէ , ܧ էݧا֧ ӧէڧާѧ, ѧܧا ܧѧ ߧѧڧݧڧ ѧߧڧ ާ֧ߧ ѧէڧڧ.
        ܧѧѧ֧ ѧ٧էߧڧܧ ӧ֧էߧ֧ӧߧ اڧ٧ߧ ߧ֧, ӧ֧ӧ֧ ѧ ҧߧ֧ ֧ߧѧ ӧ٧ ڧߧڧܧڧ ڧѧݧ اڧ٧ߧ ҧ֧ӧ, ѧܧا ڧѧݧڧ٧ѧڧ ӧ֧էߧ֧ӧߧ اڧ٧ߧ ֧ݧӧ֧ܧ. ܧڧ ڧާ֧ ԧ ӧݧ ֧ӧ ֧֧ߧڧ ڧߧڧܧԧ ѧާ ݧ اէ֧ߧڧ ѧ ާڧ ާէܷؤ ڧߧڧܧڧ ߧ ڧߧѧ , ѧܧا ֧ا֧ԧէߧ ڧѧݧ, ӧ٧ѧߧߧ ڧ٧ӧէӧ ڧݧ اѧ֧, ѧܧڧ ܧѧ ߧӧԧէߧڧ ֧֧ߧڧ ڧߧڧܧڧ ѧާ, ѧ٧ߧ էԧڧ. ߧ ߧڧ ߧ֧֧էӧ֧ߧߧ է֧اѧߧڧ ڧߧڧܧڧ ҧԧݧا֧ߧڧ ѧ٧էߧ֧, ߧ֧ߧڧ ֧ާ էѧӧߧ ڧ٧ӧ֧ߧ ڧݧ֧էӧѧߧڧ ѧܧڧ ߧܧڧ ֧ߧ, ܧѧ ߧѧԧڧէ ߧڧ Ĺ (1875-1962) ڧԧ ڧߧҧ ޸ (1887-1953), ܧ ѧ ڧݧ٧ӧѧݧڧ էݧ ڧ٧֧ߧڧ ߧ ߧ ڧߧڧܧڧ ӧ֧ӧѧߧڧ ҧԧݧا֧ߧڧ ӧ֧ާ֧ߧߧ ֧ڧ.

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Ver. 1.3