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Home » Chapter Introductions(ܧڧ) » ܧڧ
ѧ 8 : ֧ݧڧԧڧ٧ߧ ܧݧ, ԧ ݧڧߧ
ԧݧѧӧ ٧ѧѧԧڧӧѧ֧ ѧ٧ݧڧߧ ߧѧѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ, «ܧݧ» ֧ܧ, ѧ ا ܧѧѧ֧ ѧ٧ݧڧߧ ڧ٧ӧ֧ߧ է֧֧ݧ֧ ڧߧ. ܧݧܧ ڧߧ - ֧֧ӧ֧ߧߧ ӧ٧ߧڧܧѧ ߧڧ֧ܧѧ ֧ݧڧԧڧ, ާߧԧڧ ֧ ݧ֧ާ֧ߧ ѧ٧ӧڧݧڧ ӧݧڧߧڧ֧ ߧ֧ѧ٧ӧߧ ӧ٧ ڧߧڧܧڧ ӧ֧ӧѧߧڧ ߧѧڧߧѧݧߧާ ڧߧڧѧާ, ѧܧا ߧѧէߧާ ֧ݧڧԧڧ٧ߧާ ӧ֧ӧѧߧڧާ. ѧڧߧѧ ѧާѧܧ (1192-1333), ֧֧ߧߧ ާڧӧѧݧڧ ѧ٧ݧڧߧ ܧݧ ߧѧѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ڧߧ. ٧ӧ٧ էݧاߧ ҧ ٧ѧާ֧֧ߧ, ܧߧ֧ڧ ڧߧڧܧڧ «ܧ» (ԧѧܧ ڧߧ ɿƻ), «֧ܧ» ( ), ݧѧڧ֧ܧڧ ܧݧѧߧ ( ή) ߧ էӧ֧ԧѧ ԧ ާݧڧӧܧ, ٧ѧѧ ֧ܧ ѧ٧է֧ݧڧ֧ݧߧ ԧѧߧ ާ֧اէ ߧڧާ ֧ߧ ݧاߧ ӧ֧. ֧ݧ, ӧ֧ާߧ ֧ާڧߧ ֧ҧݧ ߧ֧ߧڧ ڧݧ ڧߧ ڧѧݧڧڧ֧ܧ ڧݧ ֧ܧ ѧէڧڧ, ѧѧߧ֧ާ ߧѧݧ֧էߧާ ڧߧڧܧڧާ ܧݧѧߧѧާ ܧ Ҳ, ֧ߧާ ܧݧ ܧԧѧܧ , ڧݧ ҧէէڧۧܧڧާ ӧ֧ߧߧڧܧѧާ. էݧߧ֧ߧڧ, ӧ֧ާ֧ߧߧ ֧ڧ ӧڧݧڧ ԧѧߧڧ٧ӧѧߧߧ ԧ, ڧӧ֧էڧ ڧߧ. ѧܧڧ ԧ ѧ ާڧߧѧ ֧ާڧߧѧާ «֧ܧѧߧܧڧ ڧߧ» (ܧ֧ ڧߧ ɿƻ) «ڧߧڧէߧ ߧӧ ֧ݧڧԧڧ» (ڧߧܧ֧ ڧߧܧƻϿ). ѧܧڧ ֧ݧڧԧڧ٧ߧ ާڧӧѧߧڧ ҧߧ ѧѧܧ֧ڧ٧ ߧѧݧڧڧ֧ ѧڧ٧ާѧڧ֧ܧԧ ݧڧէ֧ ڧݧ ԧѧߧڧ٧ѧ.
       ڧѧ֧, ӧݧ֧ߧڧ ѧ٧ݧڧߧ ߧѧѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ܧ ڧߧ ҧݧ ҧݧ ާ֧ ӧڧӧѧߧ էէڧ٧ާ. էէڧ ֧էݧاڧݧ ԧާߧ ܧݧڧ֧ӧ ֧ڧ ҧ ҧߧڧ ӧ٧ѧڧާӧ٧ ާ֧اէ ڧ ҧӧ֧ߧߧާ էܧڧߧѧާ ާ֧ߧާ ӧ֧ӧѧߧڧާ ܧݧѧާ ڧߧڧܧڧ ҧا֧, ܧѧާ . ѧܧ ҧ ֧ѧڧ ֧ ڧާݧڧ ѧ٧ӧڧڧ ڧߧ ާڧӧѧߧڧ ҧӧ֧ߧߧ ڧߧڧܧڧ էܧڧ. ڧߧڧܧڧ ֧ڧ, ӧ٧ߧڧܧڧ ѧާѧ , ڧߧ ƻ, ҧߧ ާڧߧѧ ܧѧ էߧ ڧ ѧߧߧڧ ܧ ڧߧ, էߧѧܧ ֧էݧܧ ֧ ӧݧ֧ߧڧ ҧݧ ٧ѧݧا֧ߧ ѧߧߧ֧ ҧէէڧۧܧ ֧ڧ֧, ڧ٧ӧ֧ߧ ܧѧ ڧߧ ӧ ѧߧէѧ, ֧ҧ ڧߧ ξƻ. ާڧӧѧߧڧ ѧܧڧ ܧ ߧѧѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ҧݧ ߧڧܧѧݧߧ ֧ߧާ֧ߧ, ٧ѧէڧӧڧާ ֧էߧڧ ӧ֧ܧ էݧاѧӧڧާ է ӧ֧ާ֧ߧߧԧ ֧ڧէ. ҧݧާ ֧, ڧߧڧܧڧ ܧݧ ѧէڧڧ ֧֧ߧߧ ѧݧ ҧ֧ѧ ߧ֧٧ѧӧڧڧާ էէڧ٧ާ. ѧѧܧ֧ߧ էݧ ѧߧߧ֧ԧ ӧ֧ާ֧ߧߧԧ ֧ڧէ ( է) ҧݧ , ѧܧڧ ڧߧڧܧڧ ܧݧ ԧ էݧاѧݧ ѧ٧ӧڧӧѧ ٧ߧѧڧ֧ݧߧ ӧݧڧߧڧ֧ ߧڧѧߧڧ٧ާ. ѧݧ֧, ֧֧ߧ ѧѧߧ֧ߧڧ ѧܧڧ ԧ ӧѧڧӧѧݧѧ. ѧڧާ֧, ԧڧާѧ ڧߧ Įƻ ڧݧ ڧߧ 18 ܧ Ȭƻ, ҧ ٧ߧѧܧ ӧ֧ԧ ݧڧ ߧ֧ҧݧ ԧ ݧէ֧, ӧ֧ާ ܧѧ էӧڧا֧ߧڧ ٧ ֧ѧӧѧڧ ڧߧ (ܧܧ ڧߧ ſƻ), ӧڧӧ֧֧ ֧ڧ ٧էߧ֧ԧ է, ݧڧݧ ڧܧ էҧ֧ߧڧ ݧ ڧߧ֧ݧݧ֧ܧѧݧߧ ֧ڧ է ާѧӧԧ էӧڧا֧ߧڧ ӧ֧ ݧاڧӧ֧ۧ ֧ڧ֧ ѧܧڧܧ. ҧ֧, ѧ٧ݧڧߧ ߧѧѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ܧݧ ڧߧ ߧѧڧҧݧ֧ ѧܧڧӧߧ ѧѧߧݧڧ ӧ֧ާ֧ߧߧ, ߧ֧ا֧ݧ ֧էߧ֧ӧ֧ܧӧ ֧ڧ. ӧ֧ާ, ܧѧ ֧ ܧѧܧ- ֧֧ߧ ѧاѧ֧ է֧اѧߧڧ ӧ֧ӧڧ ֧ߧڧ ֧ڧ, ҧݧڧߧӧ ӧ֧, ֧٧ݧѧ ֧֧ާ֧ ާ֧ѧߧڧ٧ާѧ, ާ ܧ ڧߧާѧڧ ѧ٧ߧ ֧ݧڧԧڧ٧ߧ ֧ߧڧ ѧѧߧݧѧ ҧ֧ӧ.
       ߧԧڧ ѧ֧ܧ ӧ٧ߧڧܧߧӧ֧ߧڧ ֧ܧѧߧܧԧ ڧߧ ѧܧا էݧاߧ ѧާѧڧӧѧ ӧ֧ ҧݧ֧ ܧߧ ڧѧݧߧ ڧ٧ާ֧ߧ֧ߧڧ. ѧߧߧڧ ѧ٧ էӧڧا֧ߧڧ ܧݧ ܧԧѧܧ, ܧѧ ڧէ ڧߧ Ŀƻ, ާԧ ڧѧ ֧֧էߧާ ާѧާ ߧ ֧ܧѧߧܧާ ڧߧ, էߧѧܧ ӧݧ֧ߧڧ ӧ֧ާ֧ߧߧԧ ߧܧԧ ԧէѧӧ ҧ֧ӧ ڧӧ֧ݧ ӧݧ֧ߧڧ ѧ٧ߧҧѧ٧ߧ ֧ߧڧ. էߧ ڧ ٧ѧާ֧ѧ֧ݧߧ ֧ ԧ ֧ڧէ ҧݧ ӧ٧ߧڧܧӧ֧ߧڧ ڧߧڧܧڧ ԧ, ܧ ٧ѧߧڧާѧݧڧ ԧѧߧڧ٧ӧѧߧߧ ѧѧߧ֧ߧڧ֧ ֧ݧڧԧڧ٧ߧ էܧڧ. ߧԧڧ ڧ ѧܧڧ ԧ ҧݧ ٧էѧߧ ݧڧէ֧ѧާ, ܧ ߧѧ٧ӧѧݧڧ ܧ֧ (ڧ֧ݧ-֧է) ڧݧ էԧڧާ اڧާ ڧݧѧާ. ֧ܧ ڧ ѧܧڧ ݧڧէ֧ էڧԧݧ ӧܧԧ ݧا֧ߧڧ ҧ֧ӧ ڧ٧ߧѧߧڧ ٧ ѧӧߧڧ֧ݧߧ ܧܧ ӧ֧ާ. ֧ڧ ٧էߧ֧ԧ է է ֧ѧӧѧڧ ֧ۧէ٧ 1868 ԧէ ҧ ٧ѧާ֧ѧ֧ݧ֧ ֧, ԧէ ާڧӧѧݧڧ ѧ٧ݧڧߧ ֧ܧ ڧߧ, ߧڧ ֧ݧڧԧڧ٧ߧ ݧڧڧܧ ѧӧڧ֧ݧӧ ֧ۧէ٧, ҧݧ ٧էѧߧ ڧ֧ާѧڧ֧ܧѧ ڧߧڧڧߧߧѧ ܧ, ߧѧ٧ӧѧߧߧѧ «ڧߧѧէѧ ֧ܧ ڧߧ», ڧߧ է٧ѧߧ ƻ.
       ѧڧߧѧ ѧߧߧ֧ԧ 20ԧ ӧ֧ܧ, ӧڧݧ ҧݧ ڧݧ ߧӧ ڧߧէҧߧ ֧ݧڧԧڧ. ѧ ߧѧ٧ӧѧ֧ާ ڧߧ ڧߧڧܧڧ ѧާ, է٧ڧߧէ٧ ڧߧ ҿƻݧ֧ӧ֧ߧߧԧ ֧ڧէ ѧܧا ާا֧ ܧѧܧ- ֧֧ߧ ڧѧ ާ է֧ߧާڧߧѧڧߧߧԧ ڧߧ.
        ֧ܧڧ ѧܧا ӧܧݧѧ֧ ֧ҧ ѧ 186 ٧ߧѧڧާ ݧڧߧ, ܧ ԧѧݧ ӧѧاߧ ݧ ѧ٧ӧڧڧ ڧߧ. ݧڧߧӧ ڧ ߧڧ - ߧӧѧ֧ݧ ڧݧ ݧڧէ֧ ڧߧڧܧڧ ܧ ֧֧ߧڧ; ߧӧѧ֧ݧ ݧڧէ֧ ڧߧէҧߧ ߧӧ ֧ݧڧԧڧ; ӧէѧڧ֧ ڧߧڧܧڧ ӧ֧ߧߧڧܧ (ڧߧ֧ܧ ) ڧߧڧܧڧ ֧ߧ. ԧڧާ ѧܧڧާ ݧڧߧާ ӧݧ ҧէէڧۧܧڧ ֧ߧ ӧ֧ߧߧڧܧ, ݧ֧էӧѧ֧ݧ ܧߧڧѧߧӧ ѧܧڧܧ ߧ-, ܧ ܧѧ٧ѧݧ ӧݧڧߧڧ ߧ ѧ٧ߧ ֧ڧ ڧߧ; ڧާ֧ѧ ݧ֧ߧ ڧާ֧ѧܧ ֧ާ, ѧܧا ݧ֧ߧ ѧڧܧѧڧ֧ܧڧ ܧݧѧߧ, ѧէڧڧߧߧ ӧ٧ѧߧߧ ѧܧڧܧѧާ ڧߧ; ݧڧڧ֧ܧڧ է֧֧ݧ, ӧ٧ѧߧߧ ѧ٧ѧҧܧ ӧߧ֧է֧ߧڧ֧ ѧӧڧ֧ݧӧ֧ߧߧ ݧڧڧܧ ߧ֧ߧڧ ڧߧ. ѧ٧է֧ݧ էѧߧ ܧѧܧڧ ҧڧԧѧڧ ڧ ݧէ֧, էߧѧܧ ҧ֧ ֧֧ڧݧڧ ӧ ӧѧاߧ ҧڧ ڧ اڧ٧ߧ. ܧ֧, ڧѧߧڧ ܧڧ ݧܧ ߧ ֧ ڧߧڧէ֧ߧѧ, ܧ ߧ֧֧էӧ֧ߧߧ ߧ ڧߧ. ߧԧڧ ڧ ڧߧէڧӧڧէާ, ӧ٧ѧߧ ڧߧڧܧڧާ ԧѧާ ܧݧѧާ, ҧݧ ѧܧا ݧէӧڧާ ڧѧ֧ݧާ, ߧ ާߧԧڧ ڧ ڧ ѧҧ ӧ֧ѧ է֧ݧߧ ԧݧѧӧ (ѧ 9), ٧է֧ էѧߧ ݧܧ ܧѧܧڧ է֧اѧߧڧ ڧ ѧҧ. ѧ ѧӧڧݧ, ާڧߧѧ ݧܧ ҧݧڧܧӧѧߧߧ ѧҧ. ѧܧا, ݧѧ ߧӧѧ֧ݧ֧ ݧڧէ֧ ڧߧէҧߧ ߧӧ ֧ݧڧԧڧ, ܧݧܧ ڧߧާѧڧ էѧߧ ѧ, ܧѧѧڧ ѧާڧ ާڧӧѧߧڧ, ާߧԧ ҧڧԧѧڧ էѧߧ ܧѧܧ ӧڧէ. ֧էѧܧ ѧܧا ݧڧ ҧݧڧܧӧѧ ܧѧ ާاߧ ҧݧ ڧݧݧѧڧ ԧѧڧ ٧ߧѧާ֧ߧڧ ڧߧڧ.

— ߧ ҧѧܧ
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