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Home » 8. Schools, Groups, and Personalities » Medieval and Early Modern Schools
Kikke Shintō
The Shinto teachings transmitted by the Tachibana clan, said to have originated with Tachibana Moroe (684-787), but in fact likely organized only after the beginning of the Edo period. Kikke Shinto became widely known during the mid-Edo Hōei era (1704-1710), when Tamaki Masahide, a follower of Suika Shintō began to promulgate the Tachibana teachings. Masahide was a priest (shinkan) at the shrine Umenomiya in Kyoto; he received the secret transmission of Kikke Shintō at the beginning of the Genroku era from a man known as Susukida Mochisada, who was said to be a descendant of the Tachibana clan. Masahide also referred to himself as "Tamaki Yukihiro Tachibana Masahide." Afterwards, until his final years, he studied Suika Shintō and apprenticed himself to Ōgimachi Kinmichi, the founder of Ōgimachi Shintō, and was also devoted to Suika Shintō. Thus the two Shinto teachings of Suika and Kikke came into contact and underwent a unique intellectual development. In his lifetime, Masahide compiled and wrote a massive number of books, and the name "Kikke" is attached to many of those. Among his numerous works are Kikke shingun den, Kikke hikime hiden, Kikke meigen gokuhiden, Kikke shintai kanjō kōjuden, and Kikke ikashihoko hiden. That Masahide had direct contact with this "Kikke Shintō" can be ascertained from the postscripts to the works that he transcribed and authored." The Susukida Mochisada claimed as origin of the secret transmission of this Shinto is considered the twenty-seventh in the lineage after Moroe, but doubts remain concerning the language describing his genealogy and pedigree, and nothing is known of Mochisada himself apart from what Masahide wrote in his postscripts. Masahide organized and assembled the teachings of Kikke Shintō and made its name publicly recognized. Through his exhaustive efforts, Kikke Shintō developed expansively, and came to be enthusiastically accepted by prominent Shintoists of the day. Tanigawa Kotosuga and Yoshimi Yoshikazu are representative of this movement. One of the major features of Kikke Shintō is its strong emphasis on ritual and ceremonial procedures rather than on doctrinal or intellectual elements. Concrete examples of this feature include the practice of secret transmission rituals with names such as hikime or meigen. Another distinguishing characteristic is the strong military-tactical coloring of Kikke Shintō, represented by the existence of a "transmission on the divine army" (shingun-den) among its secret transmissions. These secret transmissions regarding military tactics would later emerge in Suika Shintō as well, and would attract the attention of adherents drawn from the warrior class, such as Atobe Yoshiakira and Okada Bansai. The military-tactical aspect of Kikke Shintō prospered in conjunction with the contemporary atmosphere of devotion to Kusunoki Masashige. This in turn was to give rise to the Bōnanken Shintō of Wakabayashi Kyōsai.
See Tamaki Masahide.
-Yazaki Hiroyuki
"Establishment of a National Learning Institute for the Dissemination of Research on Shinto and Japanese Culture"
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